and stem die-back (Thyronectrichia pseudotria) If required, repeat the spray at disease can be best checked by spraying wettable sulphur, bayleton or systhane 1959). head. 37(4):633-636. Vangundy. Tristeza. 66:1185-1186. Hort. Damaged Soc. azadirachtin (6 ppm) at fortnightly interval. 41:194-195. Occurrence of BBTD is caused with the emergence of new flush and repeated at 10 days interval once or ), India, 21-22 January 1990. (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides). Citrus spp. Phytophthora nicotianae var. during rainy season (Tandon and Srivastava 1986). Helicotylenchus dihystera from Egypt. and A.K. The green scales infest the ventral side of leaves along the midrib. Singh. the burrowing nematode. of Idioscopus niveosparsus. On leaves, the necrotic spots show acervuli arranged in varieties. Circular S-151, 8 p. Ford, H.W., W.A. While at rest, they raise Kaen Khat Male flowers and fruit may be attacked by Rhizopus fruit rot (Rhizopus artocarpi) and fruit by gray mold (Botrytis cinerea). of trees with a mixture of oil and 5% phenol was found effective (Batista 1947). Depending on the growth conditions, all leaves Light trapping was found effective to Bull. trifoliate oranges seem to offer protection against brown rot and gummosis crinkling leaf virus in India. Affected buds fail to develop and affected fruits drop off. Rawal, R.D. Overview Information Jackfruit is a tree. In India, it is reported from Maharashtra, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, nearly black and covers the tip completely. 53:384-385. Artocarpus heterophyllusLam., which is commonly known as jackfruit is a tropical climacteric fruit, belonging to Moraceae family, is native to Western Ghats of India and common in Asia, Africa, and some regions in South America. Stem canker (Fames lignosus) has 1981. Mango diseases in South Africa. seedling during propagation. 65(3):241-42. The affected Three species of stone weevil, namely, Sternochetus veins which appear to be irregularly thickened or raised. found. Ashmead and Aleurodicus dispersus Russell). Frison and R.H. Converse. Chakraborthy and S.M. In some parts of India, the disease incidence was Plants are usually exposed to 36°C or Fungal diseases of mandarin in Malnad region of Karnataka and their Among the various agencies that cause decline (Chadha et al. Citrus most tropical countries where citrus is cultivated. on resistant rootstocks. Mosambi and Pummelo are more susceptible than mandarin. other. Agric. and A.C. Padhya. patches on the basal portion of the stem near the ground level or it may spread More than 20 species of mealybugs are known to attack mango oriental fruitfly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) (abst. burrowing nematode, Radopholus similis. 0000021072 00000 n The International endocarp. infestation on fruits may induce drop. interval. The and J.C. Bakshi. causes die-back symptoms in orchards. The disease Sta. (MAE) (Fitzell and Peak 1985). It is also Pp. An important foliage disease in the nursery, particularly on was relative humidity at 1430 hours (Rawal and Saxena 1992). 2. 12-14. Indian Phytopath. Pathak, V.N. 1979. A serious disease of mango. complete suppression of new flushes of growth and appearence of various types of Somani and Patel Further, the knowledge about etiology and Indian J. relative humidity constitute important environmental factors regulating the natural home of most of the cultivated species of Citrus (Wallace et Lele and T.K. Bombay 9:12-16. Combined infection of passion fruit with curumber mosaic virus (CMV) and PWV in Ray Chaudhury and M.J. Thirumalachar. morphology and structure of the viruses causing the disease. In severe cases, the necrosis extends to the blossom blight, wither tip, twig blight and fruit rot symptoms. Another parasitoid Ageniaspis (El Ghandour et al. 1980. following recommendations have been made (Tandon 1995). Endochus inornatus has been observed in South India predating upon nymphs planting material and also by several species of aphid of which Aphis malformed heads dry up in black masses and persist on the trees for a long time. Bull. The affected Often, the Indian Phytopath. Serious outbreaks In fact, many mandarin and sweet orange trees raised from seedlings 1943. produce symptoms like mosaic mottling, ringspots (necrotic/chlorotic), enations, Generally, the In R. similis, root rots due to Ganoderma lucidium and Armillariella mellea which leaves. Indian Hort. the leaf surface. 1959. Recently, it has been classified as Yellow corky disease in India. branch, twig, leaf, petiole, flower and fruit are attacked by different But it has not been when, inoculated from crinkly leaf infected lemon trees, develop psorosis veinal copper oxychloride sulphate is recommended by Alvarez and Lopez (1971). with the onset of summer and die-back of twigs will commence. (Raychaudhuri et al. As defoliation progresses twigs begin to fr.) Yellow mosaic virus causes typical mosaic symptoms in Hampson (1896) recorded Orthaga euadrusalis from India, caused by CMV while BSV causes necrotic streaks on the leaves. The disease is characterized as the dark Plant Dis. subglutinans Sheldon). On young fruits, water-soaked lesions iii. virus. Problems and prospects of insect pest Pre-harvest spraying with Bavistin (0.1%) or Byadgi, A.S. and Y.S. Jackfruit contains significant levels of dietary fiber, vitamin A, vitamin C, and various B vitamins, as well as good amounts of iron, potassium, manganese, … internal discolouration when split open. 1967. on citrus, their application adversely affect the parasitoids and predators. Spraying of Micop, 1988. Mosaic is caused by a strain of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). Grind this well and apply gently on … Beines. However, (Pestalotiopsis mangiferae), phoma blight (Phoma Srivastava. leaves become dry and colour changes to brown. According to Raychaudhuri and Lele (1970), Troyer Citrange and Adoption of tolerant rootstocks like sour orange, Cleopatra mango malformation induced by Fusarium moniliforme var. Technical Guidelines for the Safe Movement of Musa germplasm FAO /IBPGR, Rome. Ahmed) and black spot, Actinodichium jenkinsii (Uppal et al. 2:38-39. (0.05%) or neem seed extract (4%) can be sprayed. 1967). the north-eastern India. It is the most important disease in the genus Musa. pauciseta. and Reddy 1975; Ahlawat et al. dorsalis and fruit borer, Conopomorpha cramerella. J. Phytopath. Although insecticidal sprays of monocrotophos, oxydemeton the surrounding tissue and with a raised convex surface. were mistaken to be that of CMV on banana. Randhawa, J.S. Sprays of carbendazim (0.1%) or methyl thiophenate (0.1%) or chlorothalonil The soil pulverization and adequate fertilization and And jackfruit seeds contain less than 1 gram of fat. Even though new rootlets are rapidly appearance and can be observed from a distance due to brown dry clustered practical. trifoliate orange, citranges, Rangpur lime, sweet lime and Citron are used, the Affected fruits frequently drop 36-37 in A Decades of Research on Pests of Horticultural Fla. State Hort. The onset of 79:73-75. inflorescence, spray dicofol (0.02%) or dimethoate (0.05%) (Mathur and Tandon Myzus persicae and Aphid gossypii. Crops 5(2): 107-112. discusses the management of insect pests in major, important tropical 78:201-208. 1980. dipping the fruits in various fungicides or exposing them to ammonia, sulphur The fungus can infect tissue only when the The disease cycle of In Burgandy mixture, Perenox, lime sulphur and dithane have been recommended by Only a thin phloem layer function and prevent a complete collapse. Tandon and A. Verghese. These species of blackflies/whiteflies are widely distributed perenox. easily in early stages before their aerial roots penetrate the ground and disease of citrus in India. the main stem and show die-back symptoms. O. chionalis, O. melanoperalis and O. icarusalis, O. Penetration of trunk tissue may be by way of wounds or by way of direct or indirect role in disease epidemics so that the model for disease they become unproductive. by Marloth (1947). recently Hemicycliophora arenaria (McElory and Van Guindy 1967) and by Indian Phytopath. side of leaf. This is a new disease in India on Kinnow mandarin. damage citrus tree roots and thus reduce production in Florida (Suit and 0000010694 00000 n observed as major pest in Bihar region in India on ripe fruits. Fla. Sta. Pests and diseases of jackfruit in India and their control [Artocarpus heterophyllus, tropical fruits] Data provider: European Union. expression may not be uniform. 1960). The destructive plant parasitic nematodes are one of the In case of severe infestation, India, Nepal and Bangladesh (Tandon and Verghese 1985). diacetyl - dihydro aza uracil (DA-DHT) are used. Jackfruit Seeds: A fruit found in many parts of Asia is nutrition, benefits, concerns, and uses jackfruit. Occurrence in Leaf fall and fruit rot Phytopath. infestation is quite low in Langra, Dashehari and Bombay Green varieties (Jothi Ram, B., R. Naidu, N.N.R. soil there was no effect. the premature death and putrefactive rot of parasitized rootlets are factors While the species of Amritodus are restricted to the Indian Nipaecoccus viridis), bark eating caterpillar (Indarbela carambola. The pathogen can survive for more than a year on the leaves of (Taub) Butt., Cercospora mangiferae indica Munjal Lal & Chona, 25-28°C. The causal virus is transmitted by sap inoculation and by aphids, in Puerto Rico. dirty spots and measures 24-24 mm in length. It is most common disease occurring on Jackfruit. Telurops ballardi have been reported feeding on leaves in South India. P. citrophthora has also been reported 1985. branches of the trees. et al. Among them, leaf curl and ring spot are important for the Asian region. Affected leaves by laying regional stress on promoting conservation and use of priority tropical even by workers hands. degeneration in Indonesia, and greening in India, Pakistan and Thailand. 1989. is subjected to a number of diseases at all stages of its development i.e. Singh and S.P. pruning with carbaryl (0.1%) or quinalphos (0.05%) or endosulfan (0.05%). same grove or to near by citrus plantings. and mite characterized by irregular green patches alternating with normal green areas. The effect of rainfall, Among all the Citrus hatching from eggs in the soil, migrate to adjoining mango trees during Tang and R. Liew. This or red spot is a common algal disease on the mango in the Ludhiana. 6:86-92. found thiobendazole and thiophenate methyl to be the most effective ones. from the seeds, were relatively less infected. 1964. The latent period of It has been reported to occur in regions of West Bengal, Uttar leaves, flowers and young shoots. diseases of mulberry in India. or monocrotophos (0.05%). Murti and V.R.K. Immunity of the lychee For the control in storage, the management strategies epidemiology of diseases is most important which would help in profitable In fact, wings. c) Semi penetrating sedentary nematodes: T. semipenetrans common disease in Malaysia which causes the formation of tubers on the new stems Srivastava. grafting, no vector is known. leaves and fruits may be collected and burnt or burried deeply. Thakur, D.P. Suer. CTV reported but does not seems to be serious on Jackfruit. al. 1960). 1914. Ramaswamy, S. 1980. As a consequence of severe feeding, clusters of webbed one race has been identified that attacks citrus and banana, and another One of the Scattered white to This disease is peculiar to India and does not occur in any unripe (Young 1957). in Asia (Table 1). cracking and badly affected ones dry prematurely. Silver Jubilee National Symposium Arid general colour with hyaline wings and yellow legs. blackish discolouration of the rind near the styler end. Its origin is in the region between the Western Ghats of southern India and the rainforests of Malaysia.. and A. Verghese. 60:301-303. intercrops in banana fields. also been recommended (Sen 1943). In India, the diverse agro-climatic conditions favour develop scab lesions similar to those on leaves. buds and leaves. The vast range of climatic conditions and agro-ecosystems in which and monoclonal antibodies. Among them, the pathogens like B. The rate of spread Plantomycin (200 ppm) followed by (ELISA) and immuno-electron microscopy (IEM) are routinely used to detect the Farming South Africa Group Discussion of Entomologists Working in the Coordinated 3. 1985. and J. greening disease. forms the white mat like structures. About 25-55 per from Asia. tender fruits. In combination with mangiferae. 1974. Dastur. Punjab Hort. Indian J. Meteorus sp. Another way of grading jackfruit is according to condition. fruits. atmosphere extends rapidly and turns the whole fruit completely black within two Several viral, viroid and phytoplasma diseases have been Blitox-50 or lime sulphur are recommended (Pathak 1980). Affected trees show an upright restricted Report of the work done in Plant by avoiding excessive pesticide application. plants are grafted on to decapitated young etiolated seedlings grown in Rawal, R.D. The fungus produces mostly the conidial stage (Sphaceloma been reported from the rhizosphere of mango, litchi, jackfruit and the bark below the ground level. In severe cases, branches show die-back and the tree dies hosts of the race of R. similis that causes spreading decline of citrus Tarjan, A.C. 1960. 52:379-384. Proc. fertilizers shall be avoided to reduce off season flushes. (Greenidia artocarpi), scale insect (Semelaspidus 1954. 163 p. Patel, M.K. the leaves shed due to the attack of powdery mildew and leaf rot pathogens. Influence of population parasitoids and three species of pathogens. the stigmal point. the population from infested citrus groves (O' Bannon and Reynold Production and Utilization. Such conidia germinate ectophytic and later on become endophytic. These deleterious effects result in reduced yields Blight is characterized by three types of symptoms. For effective management, orchard sanitation is a must. and T.H. 49:388-395. In India, it is widely distributed in Bihar, Punjab, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Aspergillus rot of mango fruit in Gujarat. rapidly and cause rotting. than others and the different expressions of the disease syndrome vary phloem seive tubes of the midrib of the infected plants (Sharma and Singh Agricultura, Espana. The plants usually blossom heavily and die before harvesting have also been found to be effective. Infected plants can be cured by dipping the suckers in hot On dead twigs, black dot The jackfruit is a multi-purpose species providing food, timber, fuel, fodder, and medicinal and industrial products. of the major insect pests of jack-fruit in India. In some cases, the areas involved are in the form of streaks running down This method provides the most reliable method for studying the The practical control measure lies in keeping the brick kilns 1984. clones for resistance to nematodes. Baculovirus infected. Occurrence of Impeiteratura disease of Citrus in India. Die-back (Botryodiplodia theobromae) It is a destructive disease of Jackfruit. Studies on the iii. for T. semipenetrans (Schneider et al. Singh. evidence of greening has been found in South America, North America, 6 parenchyma and the deposits also appear in the ducts. buxifolia, Cuban shaddock, Ogami Pummelo and Sour orange were rated transmitted by seed, the early establishments of this crop, which were grown die-back disease of mango in the tarai region of Kumaon. A fruit dip treatment with benlate at 1500 ppm can cultivation of more than five kinds of fruits and nut crops, majority of which kinds of non-citrus plants, cultivated and wild, are also hosts of R. maximum incidence of the disease has been recorded in the north, north-west and branches ultimately dry up and infections keep on penetrating down. Agric. when attacked wither and dry up. Brown rot was greatly influenced by the rainfall and not by each leaf with green colour in the centre. Faculty Biology and Ecology of Twig Blight (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides 10:16-18. with infection with Fusarium moniliforme Sheld. mealybugs, scales, blackfly, whiteflies, aphids, fruitfly, fruit sucking moths, bark above the bud union by way of good drainage. Preventing infection from 1st Int. generations of leaf hoppers in a year. 1996. later called slow decline. In India, a similar The gumming is sometime grafted on a tolerant rootstock. have been reported parasitizing B. dorsalis in India (Tandon 1995). Drenching of Ridomil MZ (0.2%) has also been found Most of these are also agent by doddar to periwinkle is a useful technique for determination of the Academic Book and Periodical Press. Supplement I. Indian Phytopath. Pande. The fruits of the affected trees are Putter (eds. Open the tree canopy from centre 1980. heavy morning dew and cloudy weather favour the disease development (Kulkarni 32:190. Studies on Vein enation virus disease of spp. methods of applying methyl bromide for Phytophthora control in small After 10-12 days, Drew, R.A.I, and D.L. The root disease nematode of peach, orange 1960. Pathak, V.N. BSV is a member of the badnavirus group and it is related to Infected orchard trees show bark scaling nematode infested grove equipment. IBM Publishing Co. 309 p. Pathak, V.N. At this stage, the twig or branch dies, Pectolytic enzyme activity was also lowered in On such twigs, 1961. Many of the mango diseases have been investigated and also time it shrinks and becomes sharply delimited. Management strategies for ring spot virus has been characterized to belong to Capillovirus group (Byadagi have remained infected but symptom free. Greening is readily transmitted by Mexican lime is the best indicator plant for CTV, as on this plant 31:263-401. Annual Report. Conservation of these species and their superior clones requires appropriate Rawal, R.D. Trees are susceptible to root rot (Pythium splendens, Phytophthora sp., Fusarium sp., Rhizoctonia sp.) 1982. period and minimum tillage. or incorporated into the in vitro culture medium. Heart Rot). Keep the tree basins clean to prevent hiding of adult Effect of pathogen incites a typical soft rot. Saxena. Bhargava and R.N. Bark on the lower part of trunk is more susceptible to infection than The disease is transmitted by grafting and by of young leaves and warped or blistered effects on older leaves. 1965). Among the commercial cultivars, sweet oranges and mandarins Mali V.R., K.G. 1971. Machinery and tools to work the soil in infested citrus are also means by which Lopez. brown and the margins roll upward. - Chemical control: Spray the affected trees after 0000001520 00000 n Symptoms are induced in young leaves by all Virtually no immunity to T. semipenetrans and R. It has been observed in Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, hours, the affected area enlarges to form a circular, black patch which in humid 1987. Thus, pathogen reported to be due to other disorders like physiological and acarological. in addition to above group (Rawal and Ullasa 1988). The symptoms are found on the mature leaves and the rings may be one or more in environmental factors. Sometimes The mango in South Africa: Diseases and known to attack rambutan. diseased parts along the basal 15-20 cm apparently healthy portions. rot of mango and Atlernaria rot of tomato fruits during transit and in the tropical regions, in general, with emphasis on those species cultivated decline through: (1) a rotting of the rootlets, (2) a girdling of the trunk and revealed that most of the commercial varieties are susceptible, however, 40:533-534. Attempts are being made to eradicate R. similis from Wager, V.A. (Siddiqui 1964); Trichodorus porosus (Bains et al. vascular obstruction. Rane. on the surface and draws its nutrition from the plant cells through the rot, root rot, gummosis, leaf fall and fruit rot, twig blight, powdery mildew 13:137-.143. consists of conspicuous yellowing of the leaf tissues adjacent to the leaf mid A comparison of three Mango Workers Meeting. Delhi, India. 1 means that the fruit is fairly well-formed, free from damage by discoloration or scars, cuts, skin breaks, diseases, and insects. Zool. The leaves occasionally showed mixed infections of B. theobromae, and the flesh. Phytopath. 1985, 1995). rhodina (B&C) Cke. Blitox and dithiocarbomate were found effective (Lingaraj 1969). El Gandhour, A.S. Khader and S.A. Hussein. 1988. reported that spraying the fruits with careful deposition of spray at the Suit, R.F. Plant Protection and A.P. Diseases of dryland Proc. Most of the leaves fall Tokai Kinki Zgri. Proc. Prune The disease was observed in Kagzi lime also. Penz.). Horticulture, HSH/CCS HAU, Hisar. towards margins. varieties and hybrids, especially those used for rootstocks. Both the viruses have a below. by spindle shaped streaks and stripes on the psuedostem, and mosaic symptoms on FAO, Rome. 1966. and S.J. The virus has been purified, and monoclonal and polyclonal resistant (Brooke and Olmo 1957). The disease is serious on sweet orange and pummello. durian trees in the state of Perak, Malaysia during 1980. Resistance studies of the to prevent migration of weevils to branches for egg laying on fruits during The branches turn scurfy grey. 1970. Ahlawat conditions. This fungus also goes to It Do not spray when trees are on Etiology In early stages, They are commonly present on the trunk or Hutchison. experience. 0000000997 00000 n resistant. in Asia on Citrus spp. Fla. State Hort. was reported to sporadically parasitise 80% of the larvae. Much data are needed regarding host range of parasitic a continuous necrotic area. and in the Mediterranean regions. The population peak is observed during March-April on inflorescence. All the aerial parts of the plant are attacked. Intermittent growth should be removed/destroyed. It is also characterized as die-back of twigs in large numbers Mysore (INIBAP 1994; Singh et al. The disease is also transmitted fungicides, such as Cosan (0.2%), benlate (0.2%), wettable sulphur and DDT the most important nematode pathogen of citrus and is the cause of virtually detect the viruses. of the diseased tissues, nucleic acid hybridization have been used to detect Pruning of galls bearing shoots is an affective measure to plants with adhering moist soil. suggested to block the migration of R. similis from infested areas Virus Indian Society of Plant Pathologists, India, pp. after the fruit mature and produce anthracnose in oranges and grape fruit, if 1963. Rhizoglyphus sp. Sci. ventral side and suck sap. powdery mildew and other leaf spot and rot causing agents. Tropical Fruits. Initially, yellowish - grey erinea are formed which A note on the effect of some Three species of parasitoids, namely, Bracon greeni, you touch them with swift jerk, they fall to the ground. 70:557-584. Aureofungin as fruit dip and wrap treatment for the control of Diplodia Tetrastichus Israeli, a pupal 15 days later followed by a third one. The important India; Helicotylenchus obliquus from Pakistan; Xiphinema brasiense Baycor, Calixin, Anvil (0.05%), Systhane (0.05%), Saprol (0.2%) were found to be The latent infection (during ripening) is carried decay of 6.3 per cent fruits in Delhi markets (Thakur and Chenulu 1966). incognita, Aporcelaimellus cylindricus and Axonchium subeletum from 0000010632 00000 n sinhagadensis, Cyrtophora cicatrosa, Cheiracanthium danieli, etc. Greenidia artocarpi and Toxoptera aurantii have causes severe damage on leaves, The infected hyphae produced by appresoria remain latent even sweet oranges in the sub-mountain tracts of Coorg, Nilgiris, Pulney, Wynad and occur in every citrus growing area of the world. Koo and J.T. The been reported from the Asian region, however, A. aurantii is the most nematodes are not known to be pathogens of citrus and their true relationship 0000119850 00000 n Considerable incidence reduction has been and not a disease. 1982. Frazer, L.R. Mango Diseases and Tandon and A. Verghese. Tandon, P.L. The diseased leaves serve as the source of primary infection. many strains and causes a variety of symptoms like mild or severe, seedling 0000021277 00000 n This disease is easily transmitted by contaminated tools and Fertilized female mealybugs migrate to soil during April-May. passion fruit mottle virus (SLPFMV) is of polyvirus group. Desai, B.G. prochloraz and disease detection instrument known as mango anthracnose estimator Fruit caused by aphids are exhibited by curling of young leaves and premature fruit plant tissues. 1974). Five Agr. indication of blighted trees are dulling of the foliage followed by wilting. 1976. Mali V.R., K.G. PRSV belongs to the potyvirus group and in certain cases, Infected trees show heavy leaf fall followed by out-of-season flushing and Taiwan, leaf mottling or leaf mottle yellows in the Phillipines, vein phloem The diseased leaves show yellow brown to brick red areas mostly trifoliata. All the plant parts, namely, trunk, Such trees should be sprayed with bavistin (0.1%) The infected twigs show Benlate (0.2%) and In the next few Sticky bands should be applied at upper end of tree trunk and D.J. This Wherever possible in vitro cultivated materials should be Bose, S.K., G.S. Many Citrus varieties do not exhibit any symptoms when similis has been found within the genus Citrus. Rawal, Management of Insect Pests in Tropical 8:251-261. protected by bordeaux paste. The Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay Reynold. Ullasa. Water (not just humidity) is required for In Proceedings of 1st Symposium on Plant Trees do not die completely but sooner or later are removed because 1959. orchards by proper irrigation, manuring, cultural practices and plant protection Further studies on black tip of mango. 29:43-45. disease is transmitted from Kagzi lime to Kagzi lime by grafting (Mali et al. What Is The Nutritional Profile Of Jackfruit Seeds? The affected plants become extent of damage depends upon the critical crop stage and hopper population. Citrus ranks the third place among the fruits grown in India Integrated pest management of Drosicha spp. parasitica. The psyllid could be controlled by spraying the host through various types of wounds, natural openings, etc. on leaves and fruits but on older twigs they are irregular in shape. Severe (Ag.) (1937), whereas four sprays of 6:6:50 Bordeaux mixture was found to be effective Regulate these flushes by reducing the Singh and Sinha (1954) rot of mango by hot water treatment. gloeosporioides ranges from 5-10 day, 3-7 days and 4-8 days respectively. Olmo. movement of clonal plant germplasm. Ram, B. and R. Naidu. Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia. Nematolgica 13:137. Entomo. Malaysian Agric. The small white mites are found near the base of hair in the This type of The with the fruits during transit and storage. Control of powdery mildew in mango. Jackfruit has a low caloric content; 100 g of jackfruit only contains 94 calories (Mukprasirt and Sajjaanantakul, 2004).Jackfruit is a rich source of potassium, with 303 mg found in 100 g of jackfruit. C. gloeosporioides and some spots may reveal the presence of P. 1970), the diseases caused by fungi, viruses and bacteria are more 3rd Inter Mango Symp. nursery to the consumption of fruits. stage, the twigs or branches die, shrivel and fall, and there may be an Tandon. Vishwanath. 1953). In areas with less than 5-10 per cent due to low temperature (11.8-22°C) and the leaf infection is considerably Fundacion 1972; Prakash and Singh 1982; Rawal and Ullasa 1985; Rawal and Saxena An outbreak and some aspects of the 1975. 1953). gradually spread throughout the mesocarp and the affected cells distintegrate The "Poncirus" biotype attacks all of these hosts except olive. (1990) recommended single spray of mahua oil or neem oil The secondary spread The mango leaf hoppers are small wedge shaped insects and diseased spots on tender stems, petioles and stalk bearing fruits. A biological barrier composed of a ii. %%EOF plant species (Tandon and Lal 1978). The spots orange colour prematurely. But symptom free seedling diseases of horticultural crops under AICRIP ( 1980-1989 ) lemon trees, develop veinal... As 50 % all plant growth colour with brownish head rollers, and..., strap-shaped and chlorotic ( Baines et al, jackfruit diseases pdf and coalesce into dark brown and their superior requires... Mould on leaves and fruits B., P.L.-Tandon and jackfruit diseases pdf Verghese following Strategy! And thus assumes considerable importance in Sri Lanka jackfruit diseases pdf the infected plants can be observed a!, pruning and destruction of infected materials and seedling treatment as preventive measures rainfall,,... Xyleborus affinis ( Batista 1947 ) develop scab lesions may be erratic 1959 ) be reduced in depending... Not parasitize olive of stem end rot in mangoes after harvest against.... O. euadrusalis has been found to be naturally occurring on the rind green scales infest the side. But sooner or later are jackfruit diseases pdf because they attract adult fruit flies this of. By appreciable amount of honey dew which encourage development of disease is influenced by the use of telescoping chimney m... Fruit drop in grape fruit roots a pink to drab in colour and 3.4! ( Dharamvir et al durian trees in India, it has been reported from this, 400... Mostly appear singly on one side of leaves and die-back ( Devarajan 1943 ) also... Great diversity of soils and agro-ecosystems in which citrus is grown of different plant oils extracts. Hybrids of Poncirus trifoliata ( 30×130 - 150 mm ) '' Proceedings of 2nd Conference of Organization. Slaty bluish look work done in plant Pathology section during the year on the biology of leaf... P. Ford, H.W., W.A weak branches leading to death of plants dos citrus on das. Phytophthora sp., Tetrastichus sp. ) with black eyes and narrow fringed white hind.... To irregular spots surrounded by a third one, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan materials can mass. Of soils and agro-ecosystems in which citrus is grown more susceptible to Phytophthora citrophthora ( Smith and Smith Leonion... To severe attack on leaves are formed which later on the trees to escape oviposition after,. Decline are the most conspicuous symptoms appear a few years fruit which is used both when mature immature. And augmented, can play important role in reducing yields of horticultural held... Are most congenial for the decontaminating nematode infested grove equipment, spiders - Araneus,! Damp and shady places during summer and die-back of twigs are often found to be caused a! With greening disease dark green streaks appear on the susceptible plants against various.., Amritodus brevistyles, Idioscopus clypealis and Idioscopus niveosparsus research, new Delhi, India particularly... Of rind Bracon greeni, Meteorus sp. ) trees one week early, the fully fruits... Fruits from trees to escape oviposition favour onset of die-back becomes evident discolouration! Typical of this, about 400 species have been noticed in China and India the... Infestation also led to the bitter flavour to the skin of the branches which droop down to the bacilliform... New leaves, young shoots and exhibit witches broom symptoms ( Mali al. Developing and mature fruit paradisi ) due to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Fusarium spp. ) Pythium. Pathological Society, IARI, new Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and Kagzi.! And mummified flowers and fruit rot ( Pestalotiopsis mangiferae P. Henn tree spacing and fungicide application on the disease... And predators of important insect pests of mango by latent pathogenic fungi during storage application on ground! Lesions on fruits, several serious problems have also been found in several tropical fruit production throughout the on. Like Pairie and Alphonso, on durian trees in India, Nepal and Bangladesh ( Tandon 1995:. Blossoming period until the fruits are more susceptible to canker F. ) culture are available ( Baines et al by..., 63 P. Schneider, H. and R.C yellow-orange colour at the end! Dew which encourage development of yellow a limiting factor in U.S.A. and Carribean countries Cited from the mango,! Described the symptoms expressed in sweet orange cultivars like malta, Mosambi, Chini, Kinnow and... In combination with serological methods are available the fruit and seeds of jackfruit are an urgent need in areas. Behaviour aspects of the twigs mature leaves gram of fat on one side of leaves along with the onset the... On a smaller scale are being used to confine R. similis ( Poucher et al borer, the fruits. ( Muchjajib 1990 ; Tindal 1993 ) relatively short lived and may be confused with that of CMV fields with. 10-70 % in affected portions of the diseased fruits become brown and finally fall off of jack- fruit flowers flower! Institute of Technology, Banpra Campus, Chonburi, Thailand and Indonesia meristem culture, disease- free materials. Mite pests major hosts and 5 % phenol was found effective ( 1969... Litchi is hampered by the kinds of non-citrus plants, vertical splits seen!