J Mol Biol 215:403–410, PubMed Answer: Process of retting helps in separation of pulpy material of the stem from the jute fibres. The water, penetrating to the central stalk portion, swells the inner cells, bursting the outermost layer, thus increasing absorption of both moisture and decay-producing bacteria. Retting by hiparol and its commercial application. Jute is one of the most versatile bast fibers obtained through the process of retting, which is a result of decomposition of stalks by the indigenous microflora. B. Butyric acid bacteria. Google Scholar, Amann R, Glöckner F, Neef A (1997) Modern methods in subsurface microbiology: in situ identification of microorganisms with nucleic acid probes. In conventional retting, a huge biomass undergoes decomposition in stagnant water, so retting causes environmental pollution. • The fibres are then mechanically extracted, washed, dried and marketed. Rev. The mode of retting is described. Appl Environ Microbiol 66:1662–1669, Ellis RJ, Morgan P, Weightman AJ, Fry JC (2003) Cultivation-dependent and -independent approaches for determining bacterial diversity in heavy-metal-contaminated soil. In this case, there are many bacteria help in the retting of jute, hemp and flax fibers. they are bacterial communities associated with the retting of jute. Angewandte mikrobiologische Untersuchungen über die Wasserröste der Faserpflanzen. Article They were classified in 3 genera, Bacillus, Micrococcus, and Pseudomonas and 13 species. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00248-007-9345-8. A. 1976), resulting in the reduction of growth of retting bacteria compared to higher growth observed at initial and middle stage of retting. Both over retting and under retting which are very difficult to control causes production of low grade jute fibre. 1944. Doctoral thesis, Technische Universität München, O’Farrell KA, Janssen PH (1999) Detection of Verrucomicrobia in a pasture soil by PCR-mediated amplification of 16S rRNA genes. Google Scholar, Amann R, Ludwig W (2000) Ribosomal RNA-targeted nucleic acid probes for studies in microbial ecology. In: Trevor JT, vanElsaas JD (eds) Nucleic Acid in the Environment—Methods and Applications. However, bacterial communities associated with the retting of jute are not well characterized. Q. In the present study, the bacterium isolated was found to be most active which retted jute in 6 days under laboratory condition. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. 11. In order to evaluate the pollution level in wastewater sample, the major water quality parameters that were determined in this study included BOD5, COD, color, turbidity, etc. Fibre retting: Bacterial populations, especially that of Clostridium butyclicum, are used to separate fibres of jute, hemp, flax, etc, the plants are immersed in water and when they swell, inoculated with bacteria which hydrolyze pectic substance of the cell walls and separate the fibres.These separated fibres are used t make ropes and sacks. Syst Appl Microbiol 25:84–99, Kim KS, Lilburn TG, Renner MJ, Breznak JA (1998) arfI and arfII, two genes encoding α-L-arabinofuranosidases in Cytophaga xylanolytica. of jute fiber .Although retting is a crucial step for the production of fiber bundles, the available reports on the bacterial communities in the retting environments are scarce,with most literature com-ing from flax [24–27] and jute retting [20, 28].The current knowledge of the microbial community is This project was funded by the grants from Department of Biotechnology, Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of India. Pract. Abstract Four bacterial strains with high balanced polygalacturonase (PG) and pectin lyase (PNL), and xylanase with minimal cellulase activity were used in jute retting. Uber die mikrobiologische Eigenschaften der Wassers, bei der Wasserröste der Wassers, bei Jour. Trending questions. The bulk of clones came from Proteobacteria (∼37, 41%) and a comparatively smaller proportion of clones from the divisions—Firmicutes (∼11, 12%), Cytophaga–Flexibacter–Bacteroidetes group (CFB; ∼9, 7%), Verrucomicrobia (∼6, 5%), Acidobacteria (∼4, 5%), Chlorobiales (∼5, 5%), and Actinobacteria (∼4, 2%) were identified. Helicobactor pylori is a gram-negative bacteria that produces acetate. The authors would like to thank Prof. Nirmalendu Samajpati, Botany Department, Calcutta University, Kolkata, West Bengal, India, for his help during collection of jute stems and retting water samples from West Bengal, India. They probably enter stems over the whole surface through stomata, as well as through cut ends and leaf scars, after immersion for retting. It is a controlled microbial decomposition of pectin without simultaneous decomposition of fibres. 0 0. J Bacteriol 183:3134–3141, Rohlf FJ (1993) NTSYS-PC: Numerical Taxonomy and Multivariate Analysis System—version 2.0. The bundles of jute stems after defoliation are placed in retting tank in ‘Jak’ and weighed down under water and places at a depth of 10 cm. 7. Summary: A total of 1,438 colonies of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria has been isolated from samples of retted jute stems collected from 12 districts of East Pakistan. 1950–54. Econ Bot 19, 384–393 (1965). Google Scholar, Chin K-J, Liesack W, Janssen PH (2001) Opitutus terrae gen. nov., sp. 7, 1067–75. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 39:91–100, Loy A, Lehner A, Lee N, Adamczyk J, Meier H, Ernst J, Schleifer K-H, Wagner M (2002) Oligonucleotide microarray for 16S rRNA gene-based detection of all recognized lineages of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes in the environment. © 2021 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Microbiol.6: (2). Retting is the process of separating fibres that are held together in close association using a variety of bacteria. Jute is associated with the process of Retting. J Mol Biol 148:107–127, Chandler DP, Li S, Spadoni CM, Drake GR, Balkwill DL, Fredrickson JK, Brockman FJ (1997) A molecular comparison of culturable aerobic heterotrophic bacteria and 16S rDNA clones derived from a deep subsurface sediment. Ask question + 100. Agr. (b) Bisexual flowers are always autogamous. The most widely practiced method of retting, water retting, is performed by submerging bundles of stalks in water. Microbes are used in retting to obtain bast fibres. J Bacteriol 172:762–770, Bramucci M, Kane H, Chen M, Nagarajan V (2003) Bacterial diversity in an industrial wastewater bioreactor. (c) Chasmogamous flowers are always autogamous. Still have questions? Aerobic bacteria involved in the retting of jute. Ribbon retting conducted in cement retting tank was faster than that in polythene tank. aeruginosa. Jute fibre is chemically ligno-cellulose in nature. To investigate the presence of microorganisms during the process of jute retting, full-cycle rRNA approach was followed, and two … A. Methophillic bacteria. FEMS Microbiol Rev 24:555–565, PubMed Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. These retting bacteria were already incorporated in the microbial consortium, called “CRIJAF Sona” developed by ICAR-CRIJAF. Microbiology 142:1097–1106, PubMed Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51:1965–1968, Cole JR, Chai B, Farris RJ, Wang Q, Kulam SA, McGarrell DM, Garrity GM, Tiedje JM (2005) The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP-II): sequences and tools for high-throughput rRNA analysis. Taihoku Imperial Univ. Three strains ofBacillus macerans, four strains ofB. made to evaluate changes in the physicochemical parameters of water caused by jute retting, and their impact on the survival of aquatic species as well as freshwater fish. Google Scholar, Hugenholtz P, Goebel BM, Pace NR (1998) Impact of culture-independent studies on the emerging phylogenetic view of bacterial diversity. Jute Comm. Appl Environ Microbiol 68:5064–5081, Mandal TC, Saha MN (1997) Retting. Prospects of chemical retting of jute. Retting largely determines jute fibre quality. In water retting, the most widely practiced method, bundles of stalks are submerged in water. Article The mieroflora involved in jute retting was investigated in three districts of East Pakistan for fifteen months. From the present study it is understood that inoculation of a specific mixed bacterial culture in combination with 0.5% urea as N-supplement caused faster ribbon retting of jute and kenaf. Severe deterioration of water quality occurs during jute retting in ponds, canals, floodplain lakes, and other inland water bodies in the rural areas of West Bengal in India. 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